Managing workplace risk and the Hierarchy of Control
When managing workplace risks, WHS Regulations require duty holders to work through hazard identification and Hierarchy of Control. There are four steps involved in managing workplace health and safety risks according to a Safe Work Australia fact sheet, beginning with hazard and risk assessments followed by implementing and reviewing control measures.
While the best way to control a risk is to eliminate the hazard altogether this may not always be ‘reasonably practicable’, in which case risks should be minimised as much as possible using the following steps.
Step 1) Identify Hazards:
identify what could cause harm.
Step 2) Assess Risks:
Understand what harm could be caused, the likelihood and how serious it could be and whether any existing control measures are effective.
Step 3) Control Risks:
Implement the most effective control measures that are reasonably practicable in the circumstances using the Hierarchy of Risk Control.
Step 4) Review Control Measures:
To ensure they are working effectively.
Hierarchy of Control
In light of this, a Safe Work Australia Model Code of Practice mandates Hierarchy of Control measures. Hence, the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require duty holders to work through the hierarchy when managing risks.
Ultimately, the Hierarchy of Control ranks risk control measures from the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest level of protection and reliability.
Eliminating the hazard creating the risk is the most effective. Then, substituting the hazard with something safer follows. Lastly, isolating the hazard from people or reducing risk using engineering controls.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and administrative actions sit as the last line of defense. It should only be used after all other control measures have been assessed or a supplementary control measure.
Whenever a single control measure is not sufficient, use a combination of controls.
Eliminate the Hazard altogether
eg Get rid of the dangerous machine.
Substitute the Hazard
with a safer alternative eg replace the machine with a safer version.
Isolate the Hazard
eg Keep the machine in a closed room and operate it remotely.
Enforce Engineering Controls
to reduce the risk eg attach guard to the machine to protect users.
Practice administrative controls
eg train workers how to use the machine safely.
eg wear gloves and safety eyewear when using the machine.
Safe Work Australia states that the controls use Level 3 only as a last resort. It acts as an interim measure and as a backup for higher control measures.
WHS regulations require that PPE must be a suitable size and fit and cater for the nature of work and associated hazards.
After identifying appropriate controls, consult affected senior management and any workers with their input.
This will minimise oversight and increase support and adoption of the changes and may also lead to increased staff satisfaction.